Key Capacities and Functions of Preparedness and Response

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Key Capacities and Functions of Preparedness and Response

The G20 High Level Independent Panel requested the Global Preparedness Monitoring Board (GPMB) to provide an assessment of the key capacities and function requirements for pandemic prevention, preparedness, and response (PPR), including standards and performance required for public health capacities. 

The framework below59 is based on the GPMB’s work in developing its Monitoring Framework, and describes specific key capacities and functions of preparedness and response needed at the national, regional and global levels. 

CAPACITIES & FUNCTIONSNATIONAL STANDARDSREGIONAL/GLOBAL STANDARDS
PREVENTION AND PREPAREDNESS RESPONSEOne Health surveillance and risk assessmentOne Health surveillance and risk assessmentAll countries have integrated systems for detecting and reporting novel and emerging pathogens across the one-health spectrum, including genetic analysis capacity.
PREVENTION AND PREPAREDNESS RESPONSEImmunizationAll countries have implemented routine immunization for diseases with pandemic potential, including measles, influenza, yellow fever, and others.
PREVENTION AND PREPAREDNESS RESPONSEHealth system capacity and accessAll countries have adequate workforce, facilities and equipment within national health systems to handle a surge of cases from respiratory pathogens or other infectious hazards. There is a global deployable surge workforce of health workers with plans for upskilling, partnerships, shortages and deployment.
PREVENTION AND PREPAREDNESS RESPONSEPandemic planning and exercising All countries hold regular simulations, trainings and after-action reviews (and other methods to operationalize capacity-building measures) and publish and implement findings.
PREVENTION AND PREPAREDNESS RESPONSEData and information sharingAll countries have made commitments to sharing genetic data, clinical specimens, and/or isolated specimens (biological materials) in both emergency and nonemergency contexts. There is a data sharing platform with open centralized access to data and rapid pathogen sharing.
There is a global platform for sharing data and information integrated across sectors to support decision -making and resource allocation.
PREVENTION AND PREPAREDNESS RESPONSENorms, standards, evidence-based policy, technical supportThere is a global mechanism to develop, review, and disseminate norms, standards, evidence-based policy and provide technical support to countries. 
PREVENTION AND PREPAREDNESS RESPONSER&D on future and emerging infectious diseasesThere is deployable research capacity.There are regional laboratories responsible for conducting research, growing virus samples, curating them and sharing them, and creating animal models.
Multi-sector discovery networks for medical countermeasures
There are global mechanisms to support technology transfers and R&D capacity building. 
There are existing vaccine platforms or agents that have gone through phase 1, are ready, and are broadly cross-protective against a range of pathogens.
There is sufficient deployable regional manufacturing capacity, measured as number of vaccine doses/diagnostic tests/therapeutics needed versus capacity to manufacture them.
PREVENTION AND PREPAREDNESS RESPONSEClinical trial and regulatory capacityAll countries have national emergency regulatory approval procedures and capacity.There are global and regional platforms that are operational and ready to conduct large-scale clinical trials.
PREVENTION AND PREPAREDNESS RESPONSEMechanisms for ensuring advance equitable access to countermeasuresThere are global mechanisms to enable equitable access to future safe and effective vaccines and therapeutics, including advance purchase agreements and pooled demand. 
PREVENTION AND PREPAREDNESS RESPONSESupply chain networks and stockpiles There are mechanisms for procurement, supply chain networks and regional stockpiles for essential commodities, such as oxygen, PPE, and essential medicines with capacity for scaled replenishment and planning for regulatory issues accessible to all countries in WHO regions.
There are robust regional supply chains to ensure free and rapid flow of raw materials for medical countermeasures. 
PREVENTION AND PREPAREDNESS RESPONSECommunity engagement and trustAll countries have established consultation processes, engagement mechanisms and platforms in place to capture the views and experiences of communities, including the most vulnerable in society, in order that these can be incorporated into preparedness. All countries have an infodemic management plan and established communications channels to share information transparently, including plans to utilize digital and social media.There is a global mechanism to monitor digital/social information sources, to measure and build knowledge of relevant communities, to coordinate fact-checking initiatives and to produce and disseminate information and educate the public. 
PREVENTION AND PREPAREDNESS RESPONSEGovernance and coordinationAll countries have regulatory frameworks and independent public health bodies with the authority and political accountability to lead whole-of-government and whole-of-society preparedness and to lead and direct actions in these sectors in the event of a public health emergency.There is a dedicated global platform for the governance of health emergencies preparedness and response, where national, regional and global stakeholders can coordinate, plan, and agree on priorities and that can be leveraged in the event of a health emergency. 
There is an independent monitoring and accountability mechanism for preparedness and response. 
There is a global agenda-setting and coordination mechanism for R&D.
PREVENTION AND PREPAREDNESS RESPONSESurge financing mechanismsAll countries have established national contingency funds for health emergencies. There is a global, adequately financed and sustainably replenished mechanism for rapid funding of health emergency response. 
PREVENTION AND PREPAREDNESS RESPONSEOne Health surveillance and risk assessmentThere is active surveillance of cases, including genetic analyses. Global and regional support to affected and vulnerable countries, including provision of technical guidance.
PREVENTION AND PREPAREDNESS RESPONSEHealth systemDeployment of health system capacity, including health workforce, facilities and equipment. Global health workforce is deployed. 
PREVENTION AND PREPAREDNESS RESPONSEEmergency development of diagnostics, vaccines, and therapeutics (in response to actual outbreaks)Affected and vulnerable countries deploy data sharing, surveillance, research and regulatory capacities.Global research capacity, clinical trial capacity and regulatory capacity is deployed and coordinated. 
PREVENTION AND PREPAREDNESS RESPONSEManufacturing of countermeasuresExisting manufacturing capacity for vaccines, diagnostics and therapeutics is activated. 
Supply chain for raw materials is upsurged and cross-border flow is coordinated. 
PREVENTION AND PREPAREDNESS RESPONSEProcurement, logistics, and distribution of medical products and suppliesNational procurement and supply chains mechanisms are activated.Mechanisms for procurement, logistics and distribution of medical products and supplies are activated. 
There is support for procurement of medical products and supplies for lower-income countries and countries in need. 
PREVENTION AND PREPAREDNESS RESPONSEProcurement, logistics and distribution of vaccines, diagnostics, and therapeutics National procurement and supply chains mechanisms are activated. Deployment of vaccines, diagnostics and therapeutics is coordinated and medical countermeasures are deployed rapidly, equitably based on a public health need assessment. This includes deployment of workforce and health system capacities. 
There is support for procurement of medical countermeasures for lower-income countries and countries in need. 
Knowledge generation and communicationCountries deploy community engagement and communication activities.Process to develop, review and disseminate information is activated. 
PREVENTION AND PREPAREDNESS RESPONSEGovernance and coordinationThere is multisectoral, multistakeholder coordination and governance platforms are activated.There is multisectoral, multistakeholder coordination and governance platforms are activated. 

59 This reflects the GPMB’s current views. The Monitoring Framework is in development and it is expected that the Board’s views will evolve over time as they receive more inputs and further consider the issue.